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[7] Another view is that because northern breeds can trace at least some of their ancestry back to the Taimyr wolf, this indicates the possibility of more than one domestication event. And clearly, Larson does as well. The mutation rates calibrated from both the Taimyr wolf and the Newgrange dog genomes suggest that the modern wolf and dog populations diverged from a common ancestor between 20,000 and 60,000 YBP. A model that fitted the data included admixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene. Clade C included 12% of the dogs sampled and these were sister to two ancient dogs from the Bonn-Oberkassel cave (14,700 YBP) and the Kartstein cave (12,500 YBP) near Mechernich in Germany, with a common recent ancestor estimated to 16,000–24,000 YBP. A domestication process then began to develop. Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years. [56], Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 YBP, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia. [157], Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth, with artificial selection producing around 450 globally recognized dog breeds. Because their meal was already eaten by the predators who actually killed the dead animal, they had to content themselves with the leftovers, usually the bones. [140], The oldest fossil of a dog that has been found in Japan dates to 9,500 YBP. [2][3] Genetic studies show that dogs and modern wolves display reciprocal monophyly (separate groups), which implies that dogs are not genetically close to any living wolf population and that the wild ancestor of the dog is extinct. A study led by Nagasawa found that when dogs and people gaze into each other’s eyes, the same hormone is released in both the humans and the dogs. Dog, in I.L. Another confounding factor in earlier studies: Researchers sampled DNA from modern purebred dogs, which are the result of generations of artificial selection and hybridization by breeders, skewing the genetic timeline of when wolves and dogs parted ways. Boyko is collaborating with Larson to analyze ancient canid samples, some of which are 99.5 percent bacterial contamination, according to Larson. Other dogs were more massive at 30 kg and appear to be dogs that had been crossed with wolves and used for polar bear hunting. In addition to collecting DNA from hundreds of modern wolves as well as mutts and purebred dogs, the dual-origin researchers extracted DNA from dozens of ancient dogs, including a particularly high-value sample from a 4,800-year-old animal unearthed in Newgrange, Ireland. According to the study, dogs were domesticated not once but twice, on opposite ends of the Eurasian continent at least 15,000 years ago. Though these two populations spend a period of the year in the same place, and though there was evidence of gene flow between them, the difference in prey–habitat specialization has been sufficient to maintain genetic and even coloration divergence. These wolves were raised amongst people, they were given tasks that would facilitate the tribe’s life such as hunting, guarding, herding, etc. As a researcher focused on an earlier period, she was more comfortable than some of her peers in accepting that domestication prior to the advent of agriculture — roughly 12,000 years ago — was even possible. Tomarctus (of some 15 million years ago) differed but little physically from the wolves and wild dogs, but doubtless had far to go in intelligence. : Sequencing datasets do not refute Central Asian domestication origin of dogs", "Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog", "Relaxation of selective constraint on dog mitochondrial DNA followed domestication", "Old wild wolves: Ancient DNA survey unveils population dynamics in Late Pleistocene and Holocene Italian remains", "The first evidence for Late Pleistocene dogs in Italy", "Ancient DNA analysis of the oldest canid species from the Siberian Arctic and genetic contribution to the domestic dog", "Barking up the wrong tree: Modern northern European dogs fail to explain their origin", "3-Origins of the dog:Genetic insights into dog domestication", "Dogs accompanied humans during the Neolithic expansion into Europe", "Analysis of the canid Y-chromosome phylogeny using short-read sequencing data reveals the presence of distinct haplogroups among Neolithic European dogs", "Rabbits and the Specious Origins of Domestication", "A New Origin Story for Dogs - Interview with Greger Larson", "Dog10K: An international sequencing effort to advance studies of canine domestication, phenotypes, and health", "Mapping Post-Glacial expansions: The Peopling of Southwest Asia", "Unlocking the origins and biology of domestic animals using ancient DNA and paleogenomics", "Co-evolution of humans and canids: An alternative view of dog domestication: Homo homini lupus?

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